Jonathan L. Friedmann, Ph.D.
Of all the elements of music, rhythm and tempo are the most fundamental and most attractive to the human senses. Without thinking, we synchronize body movements to beats inferred from sound patterns, and know precisely when to begin, end, speed up or slow down with the music. Regular isochronous pulses effect a variety of physical responses, from toe tapping and hand clapping to marching and dancing. Beat-based rhythm processing, or beat induction, is a cognitive skill we do not share with other primates (and is perhaps only shared with certain parrots). It is the basis of our ability to create and appreciate music, and is among the instincts that make us human.
The urge to synchronize to external rhythm is present from the first stages of human development. A recent study of 120 small children, aged five months to two years, confirms what has long been assumed: we are born with a predisposition to move to musical rhythm. According to University of York psychologist Marcel Zentner, who worked on the study, “it is the beat rather than other features of the music, such as the melody, that produces the response in infants.”
Biomusicological reactions occur naturally in small children; they are not learned or imitative behaviors. During the experiment, each child sat on a parent’s lap. The parent was instructed to stay still and was given headphones to block out sound. The child, who was fully exposed to the music, freely waved her arms, hands, legs and feet, and swayed her head and torso from side to side. Intriguingly, too, the child responded to the music with greater consistency and enthusiasm than when she was addressed by her parent’s voice.
While the study records an innate proclivity for rhythmic incitement, researchers are left to speculate why this tendency evolved. One possibility comes from evolutionary musicologist Joseph Jordania. In his book, Why Do People Sing? Music in Human Evolution (2011), Jordania proposes that early human survival was aided by attaining a collective state known as the “battle trance.” Our ancestors were too slow, weak and timid to face predators or enemies on their own. They needed to band together, and would do so through ceremonial drumming and dancing. After several hours of ritual performance, participants entered an altered state where they did not know fear, were immune to pain, acted as a single unit and were ready to sacrifice their lives for the community. Repetitive beats and movements brought them to entrainment, wherein self-awareness dissipated into unified thought and collective action.
If Jordania’s adroit analysis is correct (either in whole or in part), then the spontaneity with which we react to rhythm can be traced to natural selection. Groups best adept at orchestrating rhythmic rituals had the best chances of survival in a harsh and dangerous world. This impulse eventually became ingrained in our species. Though our existence no longer depends on it, we intuitively move to the beat from cradle to grave.
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Very well written text, thank you. Any new thoughts on this important topic?
Thank you for taking the time to read and comment on this post. It was written primarily as an overview for my students, and I haven’t returned to the topic in any significant way. Have you developed the theory much since your excellent 2011 book?
My new book “Tigers, Lions and Humans: History of Rivalry, Conflict, Reverence and Love” appeared recently. The book focuses on the interaction between the hominids/humans and the big predators that our ancestors faced during their evolutionary prehistory. The section about the rhythm is expanded with new ideas on the importance of number “four” in musical rhythm. The book will be hopefully available on amazon in about two-three weeks.
I just saw your book “Tigers, Lions and Humans” on Amazon. It looks terrific. I don’t use a kindle, and the hardback is a bit pricey. Is there a less expensive way to get the hardback? (Or is there a paperback?) I’d like to review the book on this blog.
All Best Wishes,
Sorry for the late response. If you let me know your mail address, I will send you the copy of the book – as a present.
Also, if you want me to receive your message faster, please use also my email: